|Schachfiguren, Norwegen, 1150-1200|
Nach den Wikingern: Die erste Schlacht von Ré 1163
1. Einleitung: Die Norwegischen Bürgerkriege
Von 1130 bis 1240 wurde das christianisierte Norwegen von inneren Zwistigkeiten erschüttert. Ursächlich waren Besonderheiten der altnordischen Königsfolge. Alle Söhne eines Königs galten als erbberechtigt für die Königswürde, auch die nichtehelichen Nachkommen von Nebenfrauen. Zusätzlich traten oft auch noch Nachkommen der weiblichen Nebenlinien auf den Plan.
Magnus Erlingsson ( 1156 – 1184 ) stammte über seine Mutter von König Sigurd dem Jerusalemfahrer ab. Auf Betreiben seines Vaters des mächtigen Jarls Erling Skagge ( Schiefhals ) wurde er schon mit 5 Jahren 1161 zum König gekrönt.
Sigurd Sigurdsson ( 1155-1163 ) war ein unehelicher Sohn des Königs Sigurd II. von Norwegen. Er wurde von einer Adelsfraktion unter Führung seines Ziehvaters Markus Skoog und des verwanden Jarl Sigurd 1162 zum Gegenkandidaten auf den Königstitel ausgerufen.
|Jarl Sigurd vor seiner Halle|
2. Die erste Schlacht von Ré am 20. Februar 1163
Jarl Erling und Magnus Erlingsson hatten Dezember 1162 das Julfest in Tönsberg/ Vestfold gefeiert. Sie erfuhren, dass nicht weit nördlich von ihnen Jarl Sigurd mit 600 Mann in der Gegend von Ré lagerte und das Land ausplünderte.
Hier berichtet die Heimskringla weiter:
“At last Erling
got intelligence that Sigurd and his followers were not far
distant, up at the farm Re. Erling then began his expedition out
of the town ( Tönsberg), and took with him all the towns-people who were able
to carry arms and had arms, and likewise all the merchants; and
left only twelve men behind to keep watch in the town. Erling
went out of the town on Thursday afternoon, in the second week of
Lent (February 19); and every man had two days' provisions with
him. They marched by night, and it was late before they got out
of the town with the men. Two men were with each shield and each
horse; and the people, when mustered, were about 1560 men. When
they met their spies, they were informed that Sigurd was at Re,
in a house called Ramnes, and had 600 men. Then Erling called
together his people; told them the news he had received, and all
were eager to hasten their march, fall on them in the houses, or
engage them by night.
Erling replied to them thus: -- "It is probable that we and Earl
Sigurd shall soon meet. There are also many men in this band
whose handy-work remains in our memories; such as cutting down
King Inge, and so many more of our friends, that it would take
long to reckon them up. These deeds they did by the power of
Satan, by witchcraft, and by villainy; for it stands in our laws
and country rights, that however highly a man may have been
guilty, it shall be called villainy and cowardly murder to kill
him in the night. This band has had its luck hitherto by
following the counsel of men acquainted with witchcraft and
fighting by night, and not in the light of day; and by this
proceeding have they been victorious hitherto over the chiefs
whose heads they have laid low on the earth. Now we have often
seen, and proved, how unsuitable and improper it is to go into
battle in the nighttime; therefore let us rather have before our
eyes the example of chiefs better known to us, and who deserve
better to be imitated, and fight by open day in regular battle
array, and not steal upon sleeping men in the night. We have
people enough against them, so few as they are. Let us,
therefore, wait for day and daylight, and keep together in our
array in case they attack us."
Thereafter the whole army sat down. Some opened up bundles of
hay, and made a bed of it for themselves; some sat upon their
shields, and thus waited the daydawn. The weather was raw, and
there was a wet snowdrift.
Earl Sigurd got the first intelligence of Erling's army, when it
was already near to the house. His men got up, and armed
themselves; but not knowing how many men Erling had with him,
some were inclined to fly, but the most determined to stand.
Earl Sigurd was a man of understanding, and could talk well, but
certainly was not considered brave enough to take a strong
resolution; and indeed the earl showed a great inclination to
fly, for which he got many stinging words from his men-at-arms.
As day dawned, they began on both sides to draw up their battle
array. Earl Sigurd placed his men on the edge of a ridge between
the river and the house, at a place at which a little stream runs
into the river. Erling and his people placed their array on the
other side of the river; but at the back of his array were men on
horseback well armed, who had the king with them. When Earl
Sigurd's men saw that there was so great a want of men on their
side, they held a council, and were for taking to the forest.
But Earl Sigurd said, "Ye alleged that I had no courage, but it
will now be proved; and let each of you take care not to fail, or
fly, before I do so. We have a good battle-field. Let them
cross the bridge; but as soon as the banner comes over it let us
then rush down the hill upon them, and none desert his
Earl Sigurd had on a red-brown kirtle, and a red cloak, of which
the corners were tied and turned back; shoes on his feet; and a
shield and sword called Bastard. The earl said, "God knows that
I would rather get at Erling Skakke with a stroke of Bastard,
than receive much gold."
EARL SIGURD'S FALL.
Erling Skakke's army wished to go on to the bridge; but Erling
told them to go up along the river, which was small, and not
difficult to cross, as its banks were flat; and they did so.
Earl Sigurd's array proceeded up along the ridge right opposite
to them; but as the ridge ended, and the ground was good and
level over the river, Erling told his men to sing a Paternoster,
and beg God to give them the victory who best deserved it. Then
they all sang aloud "Kyrie Eleison", and struck with their
weapons on their shields. But with this singing 360 men of
Erling's people slipped away and fled. Then Erling and his
people went across the river, and the earl's men raised the
war-shout; but there was no assault from the ridge down upon
Erling's array, but the battle began upon the hill itself. They
first used spears then edge weapons; and the earl's banner soon
retired so far back, that Erling and his men scaled the ridge.
The battle lasted but a short time before the earl's men fled to
the forest, which they had close behind them. This was told Earl
Sigurd, and his men bade him fly; but he replied, "Let us on
while we can." And his men went bravely on, and cut down on all
sides. In this tumult fell Earl Sigurd and Jon Sveinson, and
nearly sixty men. Erling lost few men, and pursued the fugitives
to the forest. There Erling halted his troops, and turned back.
He came just as the king's slaves were about stripping the
clothes off Earl Sigurd, who was not quite lifeless. He had put
his sword in the sheath, and it lay by his side. Erling took it,
struck the slaves with it, and drove them away. Then Erling,
with his troops, returned, and sat down in Tunsberg.”
3. Neue Erkenntnisse durch Schlachtfeldarchäologie
Zwischen 2011 und 2013 erfolgten im Bezirk Ramnes-Ré weiträumige Untersuchungen zunächst mithilfe von Metallsonden, später auch durch flächige Ausgrabungen. Dabei konnte das Feld der Schlacht von Ré 1163 mit großer Sicherheit ausfindig gemacht werden. Auch das Schlachtfeld der zweiten späteren Schlacht von Ré im Jahre 1171 wurde identifiziert. Hier hat der junge König Magnus 8 Jahre später eine weitere Schlacht gegen andere Prätendenten gewonnen.
Hier ist der komplette Grabungsbericht, leider nur in Norwegisch, aber schon wegen der Karten und Bilder sehr hilfreich: http://www.vfk.no/Documents/vfk.no-dok/Kulturarv/Rapporter/Slagene%20p%C3%A5%20Re%202011%20til%202013.pdf
Hunderte Spitzen von Pfeilen und Armbrustbolzen und viele andere Relikte fanden sich noch im Boden.
In der Wahrnehmung des normalen Wargamers endet die Wikingerzeit mit dem Tod Haralds des Harten bei Stamford Bridge.
Daher ist es der Osprey Reihe lobend anzurechnen, dass das darauf folgende nordische Mittelalter erstmals 2003 mit den beiden Bildbänden „Medieval Scandinavian Armies“ Band 1+2 ausgeleuchtet wurde. Zum Überfluß folgte 2007 noch der Band „The Scandinavian Baltic Crusades 1100-1500“.
Eine deutsche Übersetzung der „Heimskringla“ Königschronik von Snorri Sturluson, der wichtigsten Primärquelle für das 11. Und 12. Jhd. In Norwegen, liegt seit 2007 im Marix Verlag vor.
Hier ist sie in englischer Übersetzung: http://omacl.org/Heimskringla/Auf Youtube findet sich ein norwegisches Video vom der Fundstelle, am Ende mit Schußversuchen vor Ort:
Als nächstes soll ein Szenario der Schlacht mit Karte und Armeelisten nach den Hail Caesar Regeln erstellt werden……